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Animal and Fish Products

  • Chemistry in the Meat Industry (PDF 228 kb)
    This article gives an overview of the meat industry. It lists the parts of an animal (muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, skin, fluids and glands) that are used to produce end-products, discusses the composition of meat and the biological changes occurring in muscle to give meat and the importance of myoglobin.
  • Fellmongery (PDF 83 kb)
    Fellmongery is the process of removing wool from skin after it has been removed from a sheep carcass and treating the skin for conversion into leather. The four steps, depilation, liming, deliming/bating and pickling are described.
  • The Chemistry of the Leather Industry (PDF 75 kb)
    This article describes the steps in turning cattle and sheep skins from the meat industry into leather: Unhairing; liming; deliming and bating; pickling; tanning; neutralising, dying and fat liquoring; drying; finishing.
  • Fish Processing (PDF 34 kb)
    This article discusses the major biochemical and microbiological changes occurring post mortem , their effects on the quality of the fish, plus the handling, storage and processing procedures by which these can be reduced and the quality of the fish maintained.
  • Studies on Wax Esters in Fish (PDF 39 kb)
    This article looks at the extraction of wax esters from fish. Wax esters are esters of long chain carboxylic acids with a maximum of one double bond and long chain alcohols and are important components of lubricants, cosmetics, linoleum, and printing inks (liquid waxes), and candles and polishes (solid waxes).
  • Some Chemistry of the Wool Industry - Scouring and Yarn Production (PDF 598 kb)
    This long article first describes the discipline of textile chemistry and the chemical and physical structure of wool, and then discusses two processes, wool scouring and wet yarn processing, where Canesis (formerley WRONZ (Wool Research Organisation of New Zealand)) has developed successful new technologies.