Food and Beverages
- The Continuous Brewing of Beer (PDF 86 kb)
This article describes the continuous brewing of beer, much less common than the traditional batch process. It covers the continuous fermentation process and the yeast biochemistry, and discusses the relative advantages and disadvantages of this process.
- Chemistry in Winemaking (PDF 105 kb)
This article details the chemical composition of grapes and describes the steps in the wine manufacturing process, harvesting, crushing and destemming, pressing the berries to release juice, fermentation and purification.
- The Wheat Industry (PDF 308 kb)
This article discusses the composition of wheat and the structure of flour, and describes the chemistry involved in bread making. It finishes with an experiment suitable for schools.
- The Chemistry of Baking (PDF 46 kb)
This article considers the chemistry of the common ingredients used in baking, and looks at the effects of the physical processes of mixing and baking.
- Sugar Refining (PDF 82 kb)
This article gives the structure of sucrose and describes the four steps in refining it from the raw product: Affination, carbonation, char filtration and crystallisation.
- Sugar Syrups from Maize (PDF 93 kb)
This article explains how starch is extracted from maize, liquefied by treatment with water and a-amylase to give oligosaccharides which are broken further to a glucose-maltose mixture by further enzymatic treatment (saccharification), and then how this product is refined.
- Edible Fats and Oils in the Food Industry (PDF 132 kb)
This article describes the extraction of the oils and fats from plant seeds and animal products, how these are refined and modified to make them edible, and the range of products produced. The chemistry involved and the analyses required are explained.