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The Forestry Industry

  • Introduction to the Forestry Industry (PDF 35 kb)
    This article gives the composition of Radiata pine (90% of NZ's exotic forests), the major products - timber, pulp for paper and packaging materials, tall oil and turpentine, and chemicals that are made on site for converting wood into the various products.
  • Timber Preservation (PDF 29 kb)
    This article describes the treatment of timber with chemicals to protect it from sap stain, attack from fungi and insects, and the ratings for the amount of CCA (copper, chromium and arsenic) or TBTO (tributyl tin oxide) used for external use.
  • The Pulp and Paper Industry (PDF 95 kb)
    This article describes the processes and their chemistry from milled timber to paper - wood preparation, cooking, pulp washing, pulp screening, bleaching and paper making.
  • Bleaching Chemicals for the Kraft Pulping Industry (PDF 48 kb)
    This article describes the processes and chemistry of making chlorine, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen chloride, sodium chlorate and chlorine dioxide from aqueous sodium chloride that were in use in 1998.
  • Enzymatic Bleaching of Wood Pulp (PDF 115 kb)
    This article describes the research on and uses of enzymes to break down the polymeric bonds in phenolic polymers to assist in removing lignin from cellulose.
  • Turpentine Production and Processing (PDF 106 kb)
    This article describes how turpentine is separated from wood chips after they have been "cooked" in the Kraft paper making business, how a- and -pinene are obtained by distillation, the chemistry of converting these to other products, and the uses of these products.
  • Tall Oil Production and Processing (PDF 60 kb)
    This article describes the extraction of tall oil from the "black liquor" of pulp manufacture as tall oil soap, the acidification of this to give crude tall oil, the distillation of this into five components, the chemical composition of these and the chemistry of converting one of these into rosin paper size.